Effect of Potassium Sulfate and Zinc Sulfate Foliar Spray on some Physical and Chemical Traits of Grape (Vitis vinifera cv. Bidaneh Ghermez)

Document Type : Research Article


1 M.Sc. Student, Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran


In order to study the effects of foliar application of Potassium sulfate and Zinc sulfate on some physical and chemical properties of grape (Vitis vinifera cv. Bidaneh Ghermiz) berries, a factorial experiment was accomplished based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatments comprised of potassium sulfate in three levels (0, 5 and 10 g L-1) and zinc sulfate in four levels (0, 5.0, 1and 2 g L-1). The solutions were sprayed on grape plants for three times during the growth season. The results showed that the maximum length of berries was observed in plants treated simultaneously with 10 g L-1 of potassium sulfate and 0.5 g L-1 of zinc sulfate. Also, the highest fruit width, cluster width, and number of berries per cluster were obtained from 10 g L-1 of potassium sulfate and 2 g L-1 of zinc sulfate. The highest TSS and the lowest pH were observed in the spray solution containing 10 g L-1 of potassium sulfate with 2 g L-1 of zinc sulfate. Total antioxidant, total flavonoid and catalase enzyme activity were significantly affected by foliar application. Total phenol and guaiacol enzyme activity were increased by spraying potassium sulfate or zinc sulfate but the interaction effect of potassium sulfate and zinc sulfate on these parameters was not significant. Therefore, it can be concluded that simultaneously foliar application of potassium sulfate and zinc sulfate may lead to increasing some secondary metabolites, enhancing antioxidant capacity and improving physical properties of grape (Vitis vinifera) cv. Bidaneh Ghermiz.


Main Subjects

اردلان، م . و ثواقبی، م. 1376. تغذیه درختان میوه. ترجمه. انتشارات نشر جهاد. 275 صفحه.
امامی، ع. 1375. روش­های تجزیة گیاه. جلد اول، نشریة فنی شماره ٩٨٢، مؤسسة تحقیقات خاک و آب.
پوزشی، ر.، ذبیحی، ح. ر.، رمضانی مقدم، م. ر.، رجب­زاده، م و مختاری، آ. 1390. اثر محلول­پاشی روی، اسید هیومیک و اسید استیک بر عملکرد، اجزا و غلظت عناصر در انگور رقم پیکانی. نشریه علوم باغبانی (علوم و صنایع کشاورزی)، 25: 360-351.
حسینی، ز. 1378. روش­های متداول در تجزیه مواد عذایی. انتشارات دانشگاه شیراز. 553 صفحه.
جلیلی­مرندی، ر. 1389. میوه­های ریز (انگور، توت­فرنگی، کیوی­فروت، تمشک، انگورفرنگی حبه درشت، انگورفرنگی حبه ریز و ذغال اخته). انتشارات جهاد دانشگاهی ارومیه. 297 صفحه.
جلیلی­مرندی، ر. 1391. فیزیولوژی بعد از برداشت (جابجایی و نگهداری میوه، سبزی، گیاهان زینتی و گیاهان دارویی). انتشارات جهاد دانشگاهی ارومیه. 594 صفحه.
سالاردینی، ع. 1362. اصول تغذیه گیاه. انتشارات دانشگاه تهران. 433 صفحه.
شکافنده، ا. و رمضانی، ص. 1392. تأثیر سولفات روی و نیترات پتاسیم بر رشد و عملکرد و درصد روغن میوه زیتون رقم آمیگدالیفولیا. مجله علوم و فنون باغبانی ایران، 14(1): 29-42.
عابدی قشلاقی، ا. 1379. تأثیر محلول­‌پاشی سولفات آهن و اسید سیتریک برخواص کمی و کیفی گوجه‌­فرنگی رقم اوربانا (.Lycopersicon esculentum Mill)، پایان‌­نامه کارشناسی ارشد، دانشگاه شیراز. 52 صفحه.
عسگری، م.، امینی، ف. و جمالی، ف. 1392. اثرات کاربرد روی بر رشد، جذب عناصر غذایی و سیستم دفاع آنتی­‌اکسیدانتی رنگی (.Lycopersicum esculentum L) تحت تنش شوری. مجله تولید و فرآوری محصولات زراعی و باغی، سال سوم، 10: 254-245.
علی‌­نژاد جهرمی، ه.، شیرانی، ا.، میرزایی، م. و حیدری، ج. 1391. بررسی اثر نفتالین استیک اسید، سولفات پتاسیم و سولفات روی بر ویژگی­‌های کمی و کیفی نارنگی کلیمانتین. مجله علوم باغبانی (علوم و صنایع کشاورزی)، 26: 291-286.
نفر، ه.، نیکخواه، ر.، راستگو، س. و درستکار، م. 1392. بررسی اثر محلول­‌پاشی عنصر بر و روی بر کیفیت و اجزای عملکرد و خصوصیات رویشی ارقام خارجی انگور و رقم ایرانی رطبی زرقان، مجموعه مقالات هشتمین کنگره علوم باغبانی ایران، صفحه 730-733.
Abuhassan, M. D. and Chattopdhyay, P. K. 2000. Influence of Potassium fertilization on vegetative growth, yield and quality characters of Cavendish (AAA) banana. pp 325-330. In Banana Improvement, production and utilization. Sing, H. P. and Chada, K. L. (Eds). Association for the improvement in production, and utilization of Banana (AIPUB), National Research Center on Banana (NCRB). Trichi, India.
Alloway, B. J. 2004. Fundamental Aspects. In Zinc in Soils and Crop Nutrition; International Zinc Association: Brussels, Belgium, 4: 30-35.
Anttonen, M., Kalle, I., Hoppul, A., Rolf, N., Mighel, J., Verheul, L. and Reijoo, K. 2006. Influence of fertilization, mulch color, early forcing, fruit order, planting dates, shading, growing environment and genotype on the content of selected phenolics in Strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) fruits. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54: 2614-2620.
Alloway, B. J. 2008. Zinc in soils and crop nutrition. 2nd edition, publishers: Zinc Association (IZA) and International Fertilizer Industry. Association (IFA). Brussels, Belgium and Paris, pp: 139.
Anttonen, M. J. and Karjalainen, R. O. 2005. Environmental and genetic variation of phenolic compounds in red raspberry. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 18: 759-769.
Apel, K. and Hirt, H. 2004. Reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress and signal transduction. Annual Review of Plant Biology, 55: 373-379.
Barker, A. V. and Pilbeam, D. J. 2007. Handbook of Plant Nutrition. CRC Press. BocoRoton Florida. 662 pp.
Beers, R. F. and Sizer, I. W. 1952. Aspectrophotometric method for measuring the of hydrogen peroxide, catalase. Journal of biological Chemistry, 195: 133-140.
Beniwal, B. S., Gupta, O. P. and Ahlawat, V. P. 1992. Effect of foliar application of Urea and Potassium sulphate on physico-chemical attributes of grape. Haryana Journal of Horticultural Research, 21: 161-165.
Chiou, A., Karathanos, V. T., Mylona, A., Salta, F. N., Preventi, F. and Andrikopoulos, N. K. 2007. Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) content of simple phenolics and antioxidant activity. Food Chemistry, 102: 516-522.
Chapman, H. D. 1968. The mineral nutrition of citrus, In: Reuther, W., Batchelor, L. D. and Webber, H. J. (Eds.). The citrus Industry. Revised ed. Vol. 2. University of California. pp: 127-289.
Delgado, R., Gonzalez, M. and Martin, P. 2006. Interaction effects of Nitrogen and Potassium fertilization on anthocyanin composition and chromatic features of temprannillo grapes. International journal of Vine and Wine Sciences, 40: 141-150.
Dorais, M., Papadoulos, A. P. and Gosselin, A. 2001. Greenhouse tomato fruit quality. In: Janick. J. (Ed). Horticultural Review, 26: 239-319.
Ebadi, A., Sarikhani, H., Zamani, Z. and Babalar, M. 2002. Application of in ovule embryo culture technique in grapevine breeding program. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Science, 33: 129-135.
Elsabagh, A. S. 2012. Effect of bunches sprying with some macro and micro-nutrients on fruit retention and physical characteristics of Degle Nour date palm cultivar during kimiri stage. Agriculture Biological Science, 8 (2): 138-146.
FAOSTAT, 2013. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation (FAO). http://www.fao.org.
Galligo, S. M., Benavides, M. P. and Tomoro, M. L. 1999. Effect of Cd ions on antioxidant defense system in sunflower cotyledons. Biologia Plantarum, 42: 49-55.
Gopalswamy, N. 1969. Effect of gradeddoeses of potassium on nutrient uptake yield and quality of grapes (Vitis vinifera) var Anab-e-Shahi. Tamil Nadu Agricultural University. Combtore India. M.Sc. Thesis.155 pp.
Hafez, O. M. and EL-Metwally, I. M. 2007. Efficiency of Zinc and Potassium sprays alone or in combination with some weed control treatments on weeds growth, yield and fruit quality of Washington navel orange orchads. Journal of Applied sciences Research, 3 (7): 613-621.
Haukioja, E., Ossipov, V., Koricheva, J., Honkanen, T., Karsson, S. and Lempa, K. 1998. Biosynthetic origin of carbon-based secondary compounds: cause of variable responses of woody plants to fertilization. Chemoelogy, 8: 133-139.
Huang, G. H., Huang, T. J., Jiang, S. P. 2004. Analysis of grey incidence of chlorophyll (a, b, c) and ecology factor in Dapeng Bay, South China sea, Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 22 (1): 136-139.
Inglese, P., Barone, P. and Gullo, G. 1996. The effect of complementary irrigation on fruit growth, ripening pattern and oil characteristics of olive (Olea europaea L.) cv. Carolea. Journal of Horticultural Science, 71: 257-263.
Khayat, M., Tafazoli, E., Eshghi, S. and SandRajaec, S. 2007. Effect of Nitrogen, Boron, Potassium and Zinc sprays on yield and fruit quality of date palm. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, 2 (3): 289-296.
Khorsandi, F. 2009. Foliar zinc fertilization improves marketable fruit yield and quality attributes of Pomegranates. International Journal Agriculture, 11 (6): 766-770.
Kinaci, E. and Gulmezoglu, N. 2007. Grain yield and yield components of triticale upon application of different foliar fertilizers. Interciencia, 32 (9): 624-628.
Kuepper, G. 2003. Foliar fertilization. ATTRA. Available online: www.attra.ncat.org.
Kumar, A. R. and Kumar, N. 2007. Sulfate of Potassium foliar spray effects on yield, quality, and post-harvest life of banana. Better Crops, 91: 22-24.
Marschner, H. 1995. Mineral nutrition of higher plants. Academic press, London. 4th printing. 889 pp.
Michalak, A. 2006. Phenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity in plants growing under heavy metal strees. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 15: 523-530.
Mohammed, S., Singh, D. and Ahlawat, VP. 1993. Growth, yield and quality of grapes as affected by pruning and basal application of Potassium. Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, 22: 179-182.
Nguyen, P. M., Kwee, E. M. and Niemeyer, E. D. 2010. Potassium rate alters the antioxidant capacity and phenolic concenteration of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) Leaves. Food Chemistry, 123: 1235-1241.
Parr, A. J. and Bolwell, G. P. 2000. Phenols in the plant and in man. The potential for possible nutritional enhancement of the diet by modifying the phenols content or profile. Journal of Food Agriculture, 80: 958-1012.
Prasad, A. S. 2012. Discovery of human Zinc deficiency: 50 years later. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, 26: 66-69.
Ramezani, S. and Shekafandeh, A. 2011. Influence of Zn and K sprays on Fruit and pulp Growth in olive (Olea europea L. cv. Amygdalifolia. Iran Agricultural Research, 30 (1): 1-10.
Rashid, R., Kirmani, N. A., Nazir, N. and shafi, S. 2008. Quality of apple cv. Red Delicious as influenced by Potassium. Asian Journal Soil Science, 3: 227-229.
Rout, G. and Das, P. 2003. Effect of metaltoxicity on plant growth and metabolism: I. Zinc. Journal of Agronomie, 23: 3-11.
Saadati, S., Moallemi, N., Mortazavi, S. M. H. and Seyyednejad, S. M. 2013. Effects of Zinc and Boron foliar application on soluble carbohydrate and oil contents of three olive cultivars during fruit ripening. Journal of Scientia Horticulturae, 164: 30-34.
Sakihama, Y. and Yamasaki, H. 2002. Lipid peroxidation induces by phenolics in conjunction with aluminium ions. Biologia Plantarum, 45 (2): 249-254.
Salem, A. T. and Kilany, A. E. 2004. The influence of NPK, Phosphorus sourcs and Potassium fpliar application on growth and fruit quality of Thompson seedless grapevines. Acta Horticulturae, 640: 163-173.
Sindhu, A. S., Tomer, N. S., Chahil, B. S. and Brar, J. S. 2002. Effect of N, P and K on physic-chemical characteristics of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) during development. Haryana Journal of Horticultural Sciences, 34: 19-22.
Slinkard, K. and Singleton, V. L. 1977. Total phenol analysis Automation and comparison with manual methods. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 28: 49-55.
Soares, A. G., Trugo, L. C.,Botrel, N. and Souza, L. F. 2005. Reduction of internal browning of pineapple fruit (Ananas comusus L.) by preharvest soil application of Potassium. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 35: 201-207.
Song, C. Z., Liu, M-Y., Meng, J-F., Chi, M., Xi, Z-M. and Zhang, Z-W. 2015. Promoting effect of foliage sprayed Zinc sulfate on accumulation of sugar and phenolics in berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot growing on Zinc deficient soil, Journal of Molecules, 20: 2536-2554.
Stampar, F., Hudina, M., Dolenc, K. and Usenik, V. 1998. Influence of foliar fertilization on yield quantity and quality of apple (Malus domestica borkh.). In: Anac, D. and Martin- Prével, P., Improved Crop Quality by Nutrient Management pp: 91-94.
Stino, R. G., Abd El-Wahab, S. M., Habashy, S. A. and Kelani, R. A. 2011. Productivity and fruit quality of three Mango cultivars in relation to foliar sprays of Calcium, Zinc, Boron or Potassium. Journal of Horticultural Sciences and Ornamental Plants, 3: 91-98.
Tamagnone, L., Merida, S., Stacey, N., Plaskitt, K., Parr, A., Chang, C., Dow, J. M., Roberts, K. and Martin, C. 1998. Inhibition of phenolic acid metabolism results in precocious cell morphology in leaves of transgenic tobacco plants. Plants Cell, 10: 1801-1816.
Tavarini, S., DeglInnocenti, E., Remorini, D., Massai, R. and Guidi, R. 2008. Antioxidant capacity, Ascorbic acid, total phenols and carotenoids changes during harvest and after storage on Hayward kiwifruit. Food Chemistry, 107: 282- 288.
Tehranifar, A. and Mahmooditabar, S. 2009. Foliar application of Potassium and Boron during pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit development can improve fruit quality. Horticulture, Environment, Biotechnology, 3 (50): 23-34.
Tian, L., Wang, Y., Niu, L. and Tang, D. 2008. Breeding of disease-resistant seedless grapes using Chinese wild Vitis spp. I. In vitro embryo rescue and plant development. Scientia Horticulturae, 117: 136-141.
Updhyaya, A., Sankhla, D., Davis, T. D., Sankhla, N. and Smidth, B. N. 1985. Effect of paclobotrazol on the activities of some enzymes of activated oxygen metabolism and lipid peroxidation in senescing. Journal of Plant physiology, 121: 453-461.
Verma, T. S. and Neue, H. U. 1984. Effect of soil salinity and Zinc application on electrochemical and chemical kinetics and growth and yield of rice. Journal Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 15: 553-571.
Vieira Santos, C. L., Campos, A., Azevedo, H. and Caldeira, G. 2001. In Situ in vitro senescence induced by KCl stress: nutritional imbalance, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant metabolism, Journal of Experimental Botany, 52 (355): 351-360.
Wang, K. Y. I. 2009. In vitro culture of dog ridge grapevine. M.SC. Thesis, faculty of agriculture Texas. A@ M. University, USA.
Waraich, E. A., Ahmad, R., Saifullah, M. Y. and Ashraf, E. 2011. Role of mineral nutrition in alleviation of drought stress in plants. Australian Journal of Crop Science, 5 (6): 764-777.
Wassel, A. M. 1984. White Banaty seedless grapes as influenced by gibberellic acid and ethephon. Bulletin of Faculty of Agriculture Cairo Univercity (Journal), 35 (2): 1071-1082.