Identification of Galbanum (Ferula gummosa) Seed Germination Inhibitor Factors and Inhibitory Effect of Galbanum Seed Extract on Germination and Growth of Amaranth and Wild Barley Weeds

Document Type : Research Article


1 Assistant Professor, Department of Horticultural Sciences and Landscape Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Malayer University, Malayer, Iran

2 M.Sc. Graduated, Department of Horticultural Sciences, College of Abouraihan, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 and Associate Professor, Department of Horticultural Sciences, College of Abouraihan, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

4 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran

5 Assistant Professor, Department of Agriculture, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran


To study themechanism of seed dormancy and increasing seed germination percentage and rate in galbanum, embryo, seeds with removed seed coat and intact seeds of this plant were firstly cultivated on MS medium. In the second experiment, the effect of some environmental factors (light and darkness, different temperatures including 8°C, 20°C and alternative temperature of 8°C and 20°C), GA3 and removed seed coat were studied on seed germination of galbanum. In the third experiment the effect of aqueous extract of galbanum seed were studied on seed germination and growth of Amaranth and Wild barley. On the basis of results, 95% of galbanum embryos were grown on MS medium normally. Low temperature (8°C) and removing seed coat had significant effects on seed germination percentage and seed germination rate of galbanum, so that seeds with removed seed coat were germinated 77% at 8°C temperature. Pretreatment of seeds with GA3 had no significant effect on seed germination percentage but increased seed germination rate. Also, darkness treatment had no effect on seed germination of galbanum. All different concentrations (2.5%, 5% and 10%) of galbanum seed aqueous extract had significant inhibitor effect on the seed germination and growth of amaranth and wild barley. Results showed that galbanum seed dormancy could be studied in two plant, physiological dormancy that can be removed by low temperature and chemical dormancy which can be overcomed by removing seeds coat. 


Main Subjects

اسلامی منوچهری، ب. 1373. استفاده از محصولات مرتعی غیرچوبی در ایران. مجله مراتع و جنگل­ها، 25: 407-402.
امیدبیگی، ر .1384. تولید و فرآوری گیاهان دارویی. جلد دوم طراحان نشر. چاپ اول. 438 صفحه.
زرگری، ع. 1375. گیاهان داروئی. جلد دوم. انتشارات دانشگاه تهران، چاپ ششم. 976 صفحه.
عموآقایی، ر. 1385. تأثیر نور، مدت زمان سرمادهی و سن بذر بر جوانه­زنی بذرهای کما (Ferula ovina). علوم و فنون کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، 3: 297-289.
قربانلی، م.، بخشی­خانیکی، غ. ر. و شجاعی، ا. 1386. بررسی اثرات آللوپاتی درمنه (Artemisia sieberi) بر جوانه­زنی بذور و رشد دانه رست­های یولاف وحشی و تاج­خروس. پژوهش و سازندگی، 79: 134-129.
ملتی، ف.، کوچکی، ع. و نصیری­محلاتی، م. 1384. بررسی رفتارهای جوانه­زنـی و تاریخ کاشت مطلوب در گیاه دارویـی باریجه (Ferula gummosa). پژوهش­های زراعی ایران، 3: 530-521.
Baskin, C. C. and Baskin, J. M. 1998. Seeds. Ecology, biogeography and evolution of dormancy and germination. 666pp. San Diego: Academic Press. (hardback).
Chon, S. U., Choi, S. K., Jung, S., Jang, H. G., Pyo, B. S. and Kim, S. M. 2002. Effects of Alfalfa leaf extracts and phenolic allelochemicals on early seedling growth and root morphology of Alfalfa and barnyard grass. Crop Protection, 21: 1077-108.
Eftekhar, F., Yousefzadi, M. and Borhani, K. 2004. Antibacterial activity of the essential oil from Ferula gummosa B. seed. Fitoterapia, 75: 758-759.
Finch-Savage, W. E. and Leubner-Metzger, G. 2006. Seed dormancy and the control of germination. New Phytologist, 171: 501-523.
Fujii, Y., Furukawa, M., Hayakawa, Y., Sugawara, K. and Shibuya, T. 1991. Survey of Japanese medicinal plants for the detection of allelopathic properties. Weed Research Japan, 36: 36-42.
Gupta, V. 2003. Seed germination and dormancy breaking techniques for indigenous medicinal and aromatic plants. Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Science, 25: 402-407.
International Seed Testing Association (ISTA). 1985. International rules for seed testing. Seed Science and Technology, 13: 300-520.
Khanh, D. K., Hong, N. H., Xuan, D. T. and Chung, I. M. 2005. Paddy weed control by medicinal and leguminous plants from Southeast Asia. Crop Protection, 24: 421-431.
Maguire, J. D. 1962. Speed of germination aid in selection and evaluation for seedling and vigor. Crop Science, 2: 176-177.
Murashige, T. and Skoog, F. 1962. A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Plant Physiology, 15: 473-497.
Nadjafi, F., Bannayan, M., Tabrizi, L. and Rastgoo, M. 2006. Seed germination and dormancy breaking techniques for Ferula gummosa and Teucrium polium. Journal of Arid Environments, 64 (3): 542-547.
Ramezani, M., Hosseinzade, H. and Mojtahedi, K. 2001. Effects of Ferula gummosa B. fraction on morphine dependence in mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 77: 71-75.
Rice, E. L. 1984. Allelopathy, (2nd edition). New York Academic press. 473 pp.
Sayyah, M., Kamalinejad, M., Bahrami, R. and Rustaiyan, A. 2001. Antiepileptic potential and composition of fruit essential oil of Ferula gummosa. Biomedical Journal, 5: 69-72.
Taiz, L. and Zeiger, E. 2006. Plant Physiology, (4th edition). Sinauer Associates, Inc. Publishers, Sunderland, MA. 704 pp.
Zeng, H. Y., Alan, A. R. and Saxena, P. K. 2009. Evaluation of in vitro shoots of Artemisia judaica for allelopathic potential. Acta Physiologae Plantarum, 31: 1237-1248.