Effect of Cadmium and Zeolite on Vegetative Growth Parameters of Cress (Lepidium sativum L.) and Radish (Raphanuss ativus L.)

Document Type : Research Article


1 Previous M.Sc. Student, Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

3 Technician, Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran


In order to investigate the effect of cadmium and zeolite on vegetative growth of cress and radish a factorial experiment carried out in a completely randomized design with 3 replications at Research Station of Tabriz University. Cadmium as the first factor at 5 concentrations (0, 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg soil) from cadmium sulfate and zeolite (Klinoptiolite, Sabzevar) as the second factor with two levels (0 and 1% w/w soil) were studied. The result showed that cadmium significantly affected dry and fresh weight and leaf area of cress and root weight, length and diameter and leaf fresh and dry weight of radish. Zeolite only affected cress leaf area and fresh weight significantly. Treatment with 40 mg/kg Cd led to decreasing of radish root fresh and dry weight about 38 and 36% respectively. Application of zeolite in the soil improved growth characteristics of radish, whereas this amendment positive effect on cress was not observed. Cress leaf area was increased 2-fold by the addition of zeolite in 20 mg/kg Cd treatment. Cadmium had negative effect on growth characteristics of both plant and its negative effects on some traits was reduced by application of zeolite.


Main Subjects

بهتاش، ف.، طباطبایی، س. ج.، ملکوتی، م. ج.، سرورالدین، م. ح. و اوستان، ش. 1389. اثر کادمیوم و سیلیسیوم بر رشد و برخی ویژگی­های فیزیولوژی چغندر لبویی. مجله دانش کشاورزی پایدار، 2 (1): 67-53.
ثوابقی فیروزآبادی، غ. و ملکوتی، م. ج. 1379. اثر روی و کادمیم بر غلظت عناصر و ترکیب شیمیایی دانه گندم. مجله علوم خاک و آب، 12 (9): 66-75.
عشقی ملایری، ب. 1383. بررسی تفاوت اثرات نیترات و کلرور کادمیوم در رشد بوته­ها و جذب و ذخیره­سازی کادمیوم در ریشه و اندام هوایی گوجه­فرنگی در محیط هیدروپونیک، مجله محیط­شناسی، 30 (35): 88-85.
قلی­زاده، آ.، اصفهانی، م. و عزیزی، م. 1385. مطالعه اثرات تنش آب به همراه کاربرد زئولیت طبیعی بر خصوصیات کمی و کیفی گیاه دارویی بادرشبی (.Dracocephalum moldavica L). مجله پژوهش سازندگی در منابع طبیعی، 73: 102-96.
نوربخش، ش. 1385. بررسی اثرات بافت و کادمیوم خاک بر روی رشد چند گیاه. خلاصه مقالات همایش، محیط زیست و توسعه پایدار در کرج، صفحه 128.
Adiloglu, A. 2002. The effect of Zinc application on uptake of Cadmium in some cereal species. Archives in Agronomy and Soil Science, 48: 553-556.
Akbar, S., Khatoon, S., Shehnaz, R. and Hussain, T. 1999. Natural Zeolites: structures, classification, origin, occurrence and importance. Science International, 11: 73-78.
Ali-Khan, M. A. 2012. Effects of cadmium on growth and metabolism of Phaseolus mungo. Journal of Environmental Biology, 33: 173-179.
Becerril, F. R., Calantzis, C., Turnau, K., Caussanel, J. P., Belimov, A. A., Gianinazzi, S., Strasser, R. J. and Pearson, V. G. 2002. Cadmium accumulation and buffering of cadmium in dusted stress by Arbuscular mycorrhiza in three Pisum sativum L. genotypes. Journal of Experimental Botany, 53 (371): 1177-1185.
Benavides, M. P., Gallego, S. M. and Tomaro, M. L. 2005. Cadmium toxicity in plants Braz. Journal of Plant Physiology, 17 (1): 21-34.
Burriesci, N., Valente, S., Ottana, R., Cimino, C. and Zipelli, C. 1983. Utilization of Zeolites in spinach growing. Zeolites, 4: 5-8.
Burriesci, N., Valente, S., Zipelli, C. and Bart, J. C. J. 1984. Studies on Zeolite in agriculture. Effect on crop growth of Prunus persica and Vitis vinifera,Zeolites, 4: 373-376.
Chaoui, A. and Ferjani, E. 2005. Effects of cadmium and copper on antioxidant capacities, lignification and auxin degry adation in leaves of pea (Pisium sativum L.) seedlings. Comptes Rendus Biologies, 328: 23-31.
Cholpecka, A. and Adriano, D. C. 1996. Influence of Zeolite, apatite, and Fe-oxide on Cd and Pb uptake by crops. Science Total Environmental, 207: 195-206.
Davey, M. W., Stals, E., Panis, B., Keulemans, J. and Swennen, R. L. 2005. High throughput determination of malondial dehyde in plant tissues. Analytical Biochemistry, 347: 201-207. 
Dudka, S. and Adriano, D. C. 1997. Environmental impacts of metal ore mining and processing: a review. Journal environmental Quality, 26: 590-602.
Ekaterina, G. F. and Christos, D. T. 2002. Influence of clinoptilolite and compost on soil properties. Taylor and Francis Publishing, 33 (3): 595-607.
Frossard, R. 1993. Contaminant uptake by plants. PP. 7-24. In:Schulin, R. et al. (Eds.), Soil Monitoring, Birkhauser Verlag, Basel.
Hernandez, E. L., Lozano-Rodriguez, E., Garate, A. and Carpena-Ruiz, R. 1998. Influence of Cadmium on the uptake tissue accumulation and subcellular distribution of manganese in pea seedlings. Plant Science, 132: 139-151.
Iskandar, I. K. 2001. Environmental restoration of metals contaminated soils. Lewis Publishers.
Luis, A., Del Rio, D., Lyon, I., Bruce, G. and Marvinl, S. 1983. Immunocytochemical evidence for a peroxisomal localization of manganese superoxide dismutase in leaf protoplasts from a higher plant. Planta, 158: 216-224.
Mishra, S., Srivastava, S. and Tripathi, P. D. 2006. Phytochelatin synthesis and response of antioxidants during cadmium stress in Bacco pamonnieri. Plant Physiology Biochemistry, 44: 25-37.
Mok, M. 1994. Cytokinins and plant development- An overview. PP. 155-166. In:Mok, D. and Mok, M. (Eds.), Cytokinins: Chemistry, Activity, and Function, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
Polat, E., Karaca, M., Demir, H. and Naci, O. 2004. Use of natural Zeolite (clinoptilolite) in agriculture. Journal of Fruit Ornamental Plant Research, 12: 183-189.
Prasad, M. N. V. 2005. Nickelophilous plants and their significance in phytechnologies. Journal of Plant Physiology, 17: 113-128.
Quiroga, M. and Guerrero, M. A. 2000. A tomato peroxidase involved in the synthesis of lignin and suberin. Plant Physiolgy, 122: 1119-1127.
Rehman, F., Khan, F. A., Varshney, D. Naushin, F. and Rastogi, J. 2011. Effect of cadmium on the growth of tomato. Journal of Biology and Medicinal, 3 (2): 187-190.
Sanitadi-Toppi, L. and Gabbrielli, R. 1999. Response to Cadmium in higher plants. Environmental EXP. Botany, 41: 105-130.
Shaddox, T. 2004. Investigation of soil amendments for use in golf course putting green construction. Soil and Water Science, 136 p.
Sharma, S. S., Kaul, S. A., Metwally, K. C., Goyal, I., Finkemeier, K. and Dietz, J. 2004. Cadmium toxicity in barley (Hordeum vulgar) as affected by varying Fe nutritional status. Plant Science, 166: 1287-1295.
Sheoran, I. S., Singal, H. R. and Singh, R. 1990. Effect of cadmium and nickel on photosynthesis and the enzymes of the photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle in pigeon pea (Pisium sativum L.) .Phtosynthetic Research, 23: 345-351.
Simon, T. and Eberhard, A. 2000. Effect of Ni and As on Radish tuber cultivated on artificially polluted soils. Eurnament Journal Soil Biology, 36: 73-80.
Street, R. A., Kulkarni, M. G., Strik, W. A., Southway, C. and Van-Stnden, J. 2010. Effect of Cadmium on growth and micronutrient distribution in wild garlic (Tulbaghia violaceae L.). South African Journal of Botany, 76: 332-336.
Vassilev, A. and Yordanov, I. 1997. Reductive analysis of factors limiting growth of cadmium treated plants review. Plant Physiology, 23: 114-133.
Veselov, D., Kudoyarova, G., Symonyan, M. and Veselov, S. T. 2003. Effect of Cadmium onion uptake, transpiration and cytokinin content in wheat seedling. Bulge Journal of Plant Physiology, Special Issue, 353-359.
Waalkes, M. P. 2003. Review Cadmium carcinogenesis. Mutation Research, 533: 107-20.